운항관리사 [Flight Dispatcher]
A flight dispatcher (also known as an aircraft dispatcher, airline dispatcher, flight follower or flight operations officer) assists in planning flight paths, taking into account wind direction and ns at destination or alter airports, and other conditions. Dispatchers provide a flight following service and advise pilots if conditions or paths change. They usually work in the operations or control, weather, storms, aircraft performance and loading, landing condition center of the airline. In the United States and Canada, the flight dispatcher shares legal responsibility with the commander of the aircraft (joint responsibility dispatch system).
Dispatchers usually share responsibility for the exercise of operational control, which gives them authority to divert, delay or cancel a flight. Legal requirements known as "14 CFR PART 121" govern dispatch release in the USA. After the release of a flight (in a joint responsibility environment) the dispatcher uses sophisticated software tools to monitor the flight's progress and advises the flight crew of any circumstances that might affect flight safety. Shared responsibility adds a layer of checks and balances to aircraft operation and greatly improves safety.
Joint Aviation Authorities (JAR) OPS 1 did not mandate the use of an operational control system with flight dispatchers/joint responsibility/flight watch. The pan-European European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has not yet issued a requirement mandating the use of such an operational control system either. It is expected that EASA OPS and EASA FCL will be published in 2006 which will outline EASA's position on the issue as well as any requirements imposed on European airline operators.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, is the civil aviation branch of the UN (United Nations). ICAO states that the operator (the airline), is responsible for the operational control of its flights and only recognizes dispatch systems using flight dispatchers/flight operations officers as the means to control and supervise flights in Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 3. Chapter 4 of Annex 6 describes the duties of flight dispatchers/flight operations officers while Chapter 10 of Annex 6 describes the training and qualification requirements for flight dispatchers/flight operations officers. Chapter 10 also recognizes ICAO Document 7192 D3, The Flight Dispatcher/Flight Operations Officer Training Manual as the standard training resource for member States to develop their own flight dispatcher/flight operations officer training regulations.
The terms "flight dispatcher", "aircraft dispatcher" and "flight operations officer" are largely interchangeable depending on the area of the world in which they are used. The term "Aircraft dispatcher" is used the United States, while "flight operations officer" is more common in Europe and Africa, and "flight dispatcher" is typically used in Asia and the Middle East.